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内衣品牌 黑又胖 模特引争议,历史的 美人 标准从来都不一样

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伴游资源 发表于 2020-7-6 13:40:43 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
伴游资源
2020-7-6 13:40:43 157 0 看全部
近日,美国某知名服装品牌在纽约老佛爷大街上新刊登的广告牌引发了一轮关于女性审美的讨论。
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与以往惯用的性感健美模特不同,这是一位大码姑娘。厚嘴唇、黑皮肤、肥胖的身材……此图一出,评论区里有人欢呼,有人批判。欢呼审美的多元化,批判品牌为肥胖代言。

同一处广告牌,模特形象出现如此对比强烈的巨变着实能引发热议。古往今来,女性外貌何为美,何为丑似乎一直在被重新定义。今天我们就来一起看看有历史记录以来的“美人”都长什么样吧。

和当今P图美颜文化一样,这尊制作于2万多年前旧石器时代的雕塑,Venus of Willendorf(维纶多尔夫的维纳斯),充分展现了老祖先理想中的女性。
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在那个稍有不慎就会看不到明天的太阳的蛮荒年代,这样的身材实际上是很难实现的。这样丰盈的身躯意味着更大可能的生存和延续。

    The model has no face — pretty eyes, or bright red lips were clearly not a priority at the time. A big healthy body was all that mattered because you were your own method of survival. You couldn't bat your long lashes at a mountain lion to make it go away, you had to be strong! 她的脸并没有被刻画出来,显然明眸朱唇在那时候并不重要。健美壮实的身板才是正道,因为这意味着活下去。当山地狮追你的时候,指望一双卡姿兰大眼睛是电不死它的,够壮才能活命!

在古希腊人看来,美男子是美好的,而美丽的姑娘却是邪恶的。所以雕塑中男子更美丽,女性塑像往往就是逊色版的男像。
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并且以柏拉图和毕达哥拉斯为首的数学审美派将美丽的定义为符合完美的黄金比例,同时还必须长得对称。

    Pythagoras found that in order to be considered "beautiful", women's faces should be two thirds as wide as they are long, and both sides of the visage should be perfectly symmetrical. 毕达哥拉斯认为,美人必须满足脸宽为脸长的三分二才能算美,并且左右脸得对称。

- 文艺复兴早期 The early Renaissance era -

汉语有云,“饱暖思淫欲”,这个时期的女性,作为男性实力与地位的展示途径之一,被描绘得既要用丰腴体现富足又要用裸露勾勒欲望。在拉斐尔想像出来的美人中可见一斑。

    The idealized women of artists like Raphael were commonly curvy, pale but with slightly flushed cheeks, and soft, round faces. With the Renaissance began a transition — from simply considering women to be objects of fertility, to objects of lust and beauty. 拉斐尔等艺术家眼中的美人往往有着光滑白皙的肌肤、泛红的双颊、圆润的脸型。文艺复兴时期对女性的定义,开始从单纯将女性视作富足的象征过渡为欲望和美的载体。 fertility 美 [fr'tlti] 富饶,可生育性

塑腰就是维多利亚时代流行起来的,可谓The era of the corset(束身衣时代)。为了营造沙漏般的“美感”,女人们勒到无法呼吸五脏移位都在所不辞。

同时,为了拥有看起来洁白无瑕的脸蛋,她们宁愿中毒也要拿含汞,铅等有毒化妆品往脸上招呼。

    Makeup of the time was also incredibly dangerous. Lead, ammonia, mercury, and nightshades were common ingredients. And the Victorian's weren't completely ignorant of the effects of these poisons. Women were simply willing to poison themselves in order to look more beautiful. 当年的化妆品是非常危险的。铅、氨、颠茄都是常用成分。那会儿的女性完全不在乎这些含毒成分会带来什么后果。她们心甘情愿地为了美而中毒。

20世纪初,男人们忙着打仗,女人得以成为社会新的劳动力,女性力量崛起。


到了20年代,塑腰不再被待见,时髦女郎们身着宽松的衣服,留着短短的bob头,像男孩子一样。
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    Flappers brought about a complete change in fashion and body type. Since they were gaining a taste of men's power, the ideal women's body became a more boyish figure. For the first time, the curvy, fertile look was completely out. Girls wanted to look thin with no curves, and they were chopping their hair. 时髦派彻底改变了时尚定义和体型认知。自体验过男性权利后,理想的女性身体越来越男性化。史无前例地,曼妙、丰盈的身材彻底过时了。女孩们渴望没有曲线的身体,还剪掉了长长的秀发。 flapper ['flp(r)] n.拍击者;摩登女郎

二战结束后的美国,经济迅猛发展,好莱坞打造的梦露就是那个时代男性对美人的终极幻想。虽然没有穿塑腰,但沙漏型的曲线重回主流市场,当然,美妆产品也一并跟上。

    The increasing popularity of Hollywood films helped propel glamour models like Monroe to widespread public consciousness, and combined with the increased freedom of material after the end of wartime rationing, women's fashion options were again extensive. However, this expansion in options now meant that women were expected to take full advantage of beauty products and never leave the home without looking their best. 好莱坞电影的盛行将梦露这类女性形象推入大众视野,加之战争结束,物质享受越来越自由,女性的时尚选择再次扩增。然而,这同时也意味着女性被理所当然地期望要好好利用这些产品来打扮自己。不化妆,别出门。

以瘦为美似乎是20年代时髦女郎的延续,但是越走越极端,这一时期的广告模特的身型甚至可以用病态来形容了。比美就是比比谁更瘦,用磅秤上的数字来衡量美。

    This new form of beauty abandoned all curves and any hint of a mature look, instead appearing almost prepubescent. The 1970s saw the continued dominance of a Twiggy-like thin ideal, which began to have a widespread impact on women's health and eating habits. The era also saw the rise of diet pills, which often used potentially dangerous amphetamines to suppress the appetite. 这一新式审美抛弃了所有线条和成熟气,女性呈现出几乎尚未发育的形态。70年代将这种“瘦竹竿”风继续发扬光大,同时也开始影响到女性的健康及饮食习惯。这一时期减肥药盛行,这些药物用安非他命这类对身体有潜在伤害的成分来达到抑制食欲的效果。 prepubescent [.pripj'besnt] adj.青春期前的

Victoria Secrets(内衣品牌)倒闭之前,每年大秀上的天使们,个个都是这三个关键词行走的代言人。兴许健身热也就是从这开始蔓延全球的吧。

    This time period brought about an exercise-crazed phenomenon. Workout videos were all the rage, encouraging women to be thin, but also fit. This era also saw an upswing in anorexia, thought by some experts to be caused by an widespread obsession with exercise. 这一时期引发了健身狂潮。健身视频铺天盖地的袭来,鼓励女人们要成为精瘦人。同时,厌食症患者在这期间也越来越多,专家认为痴迷健身的风气是罪魁祸首。 anorexia [nreksi] n.

- Postmodern Beauty后现代审美 -

Kim Kardashian(卡戴珊)


这个从真人秀节目大火的女人有着石器时代的丰韵,超模的腹肌,黄金切割的面容。她是一个多时期女性美的纠结体,拉斐尔再世估计都想象不出来。

    Kim Kardashian, as unfortunate as it may be, is the poster woman of ideal beauty standards for the modern woman. Women are expected to be skinny, but not too skinny, with large breasts and a big butt, all while maintaining a flat stomach. Women increasingly are seeking plastic surgery "fixes" to achieve this look. 不幸的是,卡戴珊成了现代女性美的标准。像她一样,女人们要瘦,但要有肉,乳房跟臀部得够大,但是腹部必须平坦。为了追求这种美,越来越多的女性选择整形手术。

在看这些不同时期对美人的定义的时候,你有没有把自己带入到当中,潜意识的审视自己是否符合标准呢?会不会因为满足要求而开心,因为不符合而感到焦虑和失落呢?

然而,就像最开始的石器时代对女性的刻画一样,“美”是虚幻的,它是人想象中的概念,而想象是可以变换的,任何追求虚幻的行为,都将可能沦为泡影。或许只有真正抛掉这些所谓的标准,才是真美人。
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